In the world of Swift blogging, JSON parsing seems to be a ‘hot topic’. Maybe it’s a rite of passage to becoming a Swift blogger? Anyway, it seems like a good time to get involved.

There have been some truly excellent blog posts about using JSON with Swift, but they mainly focus on the theory behind using the functional aspects of the new language to the best effect. This is great, and I recommend you read them, but we don’t necessarily want to have to learn a whole new programming paradigm to implement the network data layer of our app.

This article is a pragmatic review of the current options available for JSON parsing in Swift, covering some of the most popular new libraries.

All approaches rely on Cocoa’s NSJSONSerialization class to handle the JSON string to Foundation object parsing. The interesting question is what happens at this point. In the Swift world, the output of JSONObjectWithData(_:, options:, error:) is an AnyObject? blob. What can we do with this? We know it’s made up of Foundation objects such as NSArray, NSDictionary, NSNumber etc, but the structure is dependent on the schema of the JSON.

First of all we’ll take a look at what we’d actually like from a JSON parser, in an ideal world, before reviewing the naïve approaches you’d expect as a seasoned Objective-C developer. Then we’ll consider two new frameworks that have popped up in the last few months, explaining their underlying concepts and reviewing how close they come to our ideal scenario.

Accompanying this article you’ll find an Xcode workspace containing several playgrounds. This is available to download from GitHub at The dependencies are managed by Carthage, but are checked in to ensure compatibility. You will probably have to build each of the frameworks in order for the playgrounds to pick them up.

Note: Swift is undergoing a huge amount of development, as are the libraries used in this blog post. The code works at the time of writing, using Swift 1.2, with Xcode 6.3β2.

Wish list

JSON is a great serialization technology due to its simple specification, and accessibility to both humans and machines. However, it quickly becomes unwieldy within the context of an application. Most software design architectures have the concept of a model layer - that is a selection of objects used to model the data structure that your application acts upon. It is these model objects that the JSON should be converted to inside the application.

Since the NSJSONSerialization class has no knowledge of the specific model layer within your application, it translates the JSON into the generic types within Foundation. It is the next step - translating these Foundation types into our data model - that is important.

Our parser should leverage the type-safety that underlies Swift, and also prevent creation of invalid objects - i.e. model objects which don’t have all required properties populated.

As you’ll see, satisfying these requirements is not too difficult in a ‘best-case’ scenario, but becomes increasingly difficult when attempting to cope with errors in the JSON data structure.

Other approaches

Before diving into the problem from a Swift point of view, let’s take a moment to review how other languages handle JSON.

C# offers an approach which uses dynamic objects. That is to say that the structure of the objects is not known at compile time, but instead they are created at runtime. In some respects, this is a lot like the behaviour of NSJSONSerialization, with the extension of using properties on a dynamic objects instead of a dictionary keyed on strings. This approach is not typesafe, in that the type-checker has no knowledge of the dynamic objects, and therefore lets you do whatever you wish with them in the code. It isn’t until runtime (i.e. once the JSON has been parsed) that you discover particular properties don’t exist, or are of the incorrect type.

Sticking with C#, there are alternative approaches that automatically deserialize JSON into pre-defined model objects through reflection and annotations. Since you define the model objects in code, you retain the type safety you’re used to, and the annotations/reflection mean that you don’t repeat yourself.

Ideally we’d like to use the latter of these two approaches in Swift. Swift doesn’t yet support reflection or annotations, so we can’t get quite the same functionality, but how close can we get?

Accompanying Project

This article has accompanying code to demonstrate the different approaches to JSON parsing in Swift, and it takes the form of three playgrounds, combined together in a workspace. The workspace also contains projects for the three framework dependencies - SwiftyJSON, Argo and Runes. Combining everything in a workspace allows you to use dependencies within playgrounds.

Carthage was used to import the dependencies, but since they have been committed into the repo, you shouldn’t need to worry about it. You will, however, need to build the frameworks in the workspace. The playgrounds are for OSX, so select each of ArgoMac and SwiftJSONOSX from the build schemes menu and then build it. Then the playgrounds will work as expected.

The output from the NSJSONSerialization class is composed of Foundation objects - NSDictionary, NSArray, NSString, NSNumber, NSDate and the all-important NSNull. Understandably, coming from an objective-C heritage, your first attempt at interpreting this data structure to match your model layer might be to deal with it directly. Since all the constituent parts are subclasses of NSObject, and properly implement key-value coding (KVC), you can jump straight in with the valueForKeyPath: method.

For example, given an NSDictionary that represents a GitHub repository from the repos API, you could find discover the repo name as follows:

let repo_name = repo_json.valueForKeyPath("name")

Notice that since you’re leveraging KVC, you can delve further into the nested structure:

let owner_login = repo_json.valueForKeyPath("owner.login")

This approach is quite powerful for pulling out the odd element from a JSON structure, however, it doesn’t stack up very well when trying to populate a model object. For example, the Repo struct is a small subset of the data returned in the JSON:

struct Repo {
  let id: Int
  let name: String
  let desc: String?
  let url: NSURL
  let homepage: NSURL?
  let fork: Bool

To correctly populate an array of Repo objects using valueForKeyPath, you’d have to write code along the following lines:

var repos = [Repo]()

if let json : AnyObject = json {
  if let array = json as? NSArray {
    for jsonItem in array as [AnyObject] {
      if let id = jsonItem.valueForKey("id") as? Int {
        if let name = jsonItem.valueForKey("name") as? String {
          if let url_string = jsonItem.valueForKey("url") as? String {
            if let fork = jsonItem.valueForKey("fork") as? Bool {
              if let url = NSURL(string: url_string) {
                let description = jsonItem.valueForKey("description") as? String
                var homepage: NSURL? = .None
                if let homepage_string = jsonItem.valueForKey("homepage") as? String {
                  homepage = NSURL(string: homepage_string)
                let repo = Repo(id: id, name: name, desc: description, url: url,
                                homepage: homepage, fork: fork)
                repos += [repo]

There are a few points to note about this code:

  • Rightward Drift If the JSON is malformed, or there is a mistake in the parsing code, then valueForKeyPath() will return nil. Therefore you need to check that each time you extract a value, it is not nil, and it is of the expected type. This leads to the optional-checking tree, the so-called “pyramid of doom”.
  • Type conversions If your JSON includes types which are not directly supported by NSJSONSerialization (such as NSURL) then the conversion code is likely to end up mixed in with the optional checking tree, as it does here.
  • Repeated Structure Notice that all this code is really doing is extracting the appropriate values for your pre-defined Repo struct and then creating one. This feels like repeated effort, especially since the property names in the struct are identical to those in the JSON itself.
  • Legibility I bet you haven’t actually read the above code block. Not really read it - I mean read it to understand it. I don’t blame you - it’s an impenetrable mess. It’s responsible for extracting values, type checking, validation, type conversion, object creation and appending to an array. That’s not a sign of a well-formed block of code.

Don’t dwell on this example too much - the code could almost certainly be reformatted and improved, whilst retaining the same approach. However, as we progress, you’ll see that there are better approaches.

You might have looked at this and decided that the valueForKeyPath approach is a deliberate attempt to be obtuse - there are better ways of working with Foundation objects in Swift. To an extent you’d be correct - valueForKeyPath is great at diving deep into object structures, but that might not always be ideal. For the interests of fairness, let’s take a look at a slightly more Swift-friendly approach.

The Foundation objects that are supported by NSJSONSerialization all have Swift counterparts that are bridged. For example, NSString in Foundation can be represented as a String in Swift. This gets a little more complicated with NSArray and NSDictionary, but with some optional casting, and liberal use of AnyObject you can work with pure Swift representations of the underlying Foundation objects.

The previous code block for creating an array of Repo objects can be rewritten as the following:

var repos_ot = [Repo]()

if let repo_array = json as? NSArray {
  for repo_item in repo_array {
    if let repo_dict = repo_item as? NSDictionary {
      if let id = repo_dict["id"] as? Int {
        if let name = repo_dict["name"] as? String {
          if let url_string = repo_dict["url"] as? String {
            if let fork = repo_dict["fork"] as? Bool {
              if let url = NSURL(string: url_string) {
                let description = repo_dict["description"] as? String
                var homepage: NSURL? = .None
                if let homepage_string = repo_dict["homepage"] as? String {
                  homepage = NSURL(string: homepage_string)
                let repo = Repo(id: id, name: name, desc: description, url: url,
                                homepage: homepage, fork: fork)
                repos_ot += [repo]

You should notice straight away that there isn’t actually a huge amount of difference. The code still suffers from rightward drift from the optional nesting, it still has the type conversion embedded in the tree, and the structure has once again been replicated.

Swift 1.2 introduces some new syntax around if let statements that significantly reduces the rightward drift. An if statement can include multiple (comma-separated) let statements, all of which must succeed in order for the conditional clause to be evaluated. Translating the above “pyramid of doom” into this new syntax results in the following:

var repos_pyramid = [Repo]()

if let repo_array = json as? NSArray {
  for repo_item in repo_array {
    if let repo_dict = repo_item as? NSDictionary,
      let id = repo_dict["id"] as? Int,
      let name = repo_dict["name"] as? String,
      let url_string = repo_dict["url"] as? String,
      let fork = repo_dict["fork"] as? Bool,
      let url = NSURL(string: url_string) {
        let description = repo_dict["description"] as? String
        var homepage: NSURL? = .None
        if let homepage_string = repo_dict["homepage"] as? String {
          homepage = NSURL(string: homepage_string)
        let repo = Repo(id: id, name: name, desc: description, url: url,
          homepage: homepage, fork: fork)
        repos_pyramid += [repo]

Notice that all the fields can be extracted from the NSDictionary in one statement, using this new let syntax. Although the syntax is slightly nicer, it is still semantically equivalent - a fairly unpleasant mix of model structure and parsing logic.

OK, so we’ve established how far we can get with this naïve approach, somewhat inspired by our traditional Objective-C days, but what happens when we start to use some of the new features of Swift?


As was mentioned in the intro to this article, we’re not actually going to dig too far into how things are being implemented in Swift, but rather discover how others (via frameworks) have used the functionality to improve the developer experience associated with parsing JSON.

First up is an open source library called SwiftyJSON. The key functionality within Swift that drives the approach taken in SwiftyJSON is the introduction of a more complete enum type - more specifically, one that allows associated values. This is used to create a JSON type, which can take a variety of different cases, each with an associated value. i.e. every element in a JSON structure can be represented using a single type - a string is still of type JSON, but with an associated String value, etc. This might sound a little confusing, but once you get your head round it you’ll see that it’s really powerful. This is starting to scratch the surface of a topic known as “Algebraic Data Types” from within functional programming. As with all topics in functional programming, it sounds a lot more complicated than it actually is.

In addition to this fundamental JSON datatype, SwiftyJSON also adds lots of implicit type conversions to simplify the typing frenzy that is optional chaining.

So, enough theory, what does this actually look like when applied to the aforementioned Repo array?

let json = JSON(data: rawJSON!, options: .allZeros, error: nil)

var repos = [Repo]()
for (index: String, subJson: JSON) in json {
  if let id = subJson["id"].int,
     let name = subJson["name"].string,
     let url = subJson["url"].string,
     let fork = subJson["fork"].bool {
        var homepage: NSURL? = .None
        if let homepage_raw = subJson["homepage"].string {
          homepage = NSURL(string: homepage_raw)
        let url_url = NSURL(string: url)!
        repos += [Repo(id: id, name: name, desc: subJson["description"].string,
          url: url_url, homepage: homepage, fork: fork)]

Some things to note about this code segment:

  • Implicit NSJSONSerialization. SwiftyJSON includes this as part of its implementation, so you actually just need to pass the raw NSData object.
  • Custom enumeration. A new for(index:, subJson:) method has been created which looks a little bit like a for-in loop. This works on a JSON array, and provides each element as a JSON object.
  • JSON Subscripting. If a JSON element is of a dictionary type then subscripting behaves as you might expect, allowing things like subJson["url"].
  • JSON casting. JSON elements also have properties on them which allow you to extract the associated value. For example, if the element is of a string type, you can extract that string with the string method. These properties are all optionals, so if you attempt to extract a string from a number element, you’ll get rewarded with .None.
  • Rightward Drift. Well, it’s not really there, because of the new syntax in Swift 1.2, but there is a huge if statement ensuring that it’s impossible to construct a malformed Repo object. This is because the accessor properties on the JSON enum are all optional, and not all of our Repo properties accept optionals.
  • Type Conversion. The NSString to NSURL type conversion is still part of the parsing tree. This is probably a little unfair; it is perfectly possible to define an extension to the JSON enum to add a property of type NSURL?. This would implement the same functionality as the existing code, but would be in a more appropriate place.

So in summary, it’s a lot better than the original approach, but it is still liable to end up with an optional tree somewhere. It’s great for extracting specific values from a JSON data structure, but doesn’t solve the problem of converting the JSON to model objects in a particularly elegant way. You could argue that maybe it’s not supposed to do that - it has succeeded in making working with JSON a much more type-safe exercise, but you’re still left with writing a lot of the parsing logic yourself.


SwiftyJSON introduced a slightly more functional way of thinking to parsing JSON, but we can take that line of thought much further. That’s the approach taken by, amongst others, Argo (swiftz is another example, but is a less-targeted toolkit, with a JSON approach that doesn’t appear to be quite as well thought out). The approach used in Argo is inspired by parser design from purely functional languages such as Haskell, so there is a lot of background and a rich heritage to this approach.

It is designed to populate model objects directly from the JSON stream, by specifying how each of the models should be ‘decoded’ from the stream. More often than not, this boils down to describing which fields in the JSON object should be used for each of the properties in your model object.

Inevitably, since this is a functional approach, it involves some crazy looking operators. Therefore, rather than just chucking a load of code at you, we’ll take it in smaller chunks.

We start with exactly the same Repo struct as in every other example, and this time add an extension that defines the conformance to the JSONDecodable protocol:

extension Repo: JSONDecodable {
  static func create(id: Int)(name: String)(desc: String?)
                    (url: NSURL)(homepage: NSURL?)(fork: Bool) -> Repo {
    return Repo(id: id, name: name, desc: desc,
                url: url, homepage: homepage, fork: fork)
  static func decode(j: JSON) -> Repo? {
    return Repo.create
      <^> j <|  "id"
      <*> j <|  "name"
      <*> j <|? "description"
      <*> j <|  "url"
      <*> j <|? "homepage"
      <*> j <|  "fork"

This looks scary - but keep calm. The JSONDecodable protocol actually defines just one method - the static decode() method. This takes a JSON (think equivalent to the JSON enum used in SwiftyJSON) and attempts to create a new Repo (hence the optional). The other method that’s been defined here is the curried create method - and this is only done as an implementation detail associated with Swift initializers.

The body of the decode method contains several custom operators, and getting your head around these will allow you to construct your own decode methods. Rather than explaining in great detail exactly what these methods do, lets take a look at how to use them in the context of implementing a decode method:

  • <| parse value. This attempts to extract the field specified by the string to the right from the JSON on the left. It will then cast to appropriate type. If this is impossible then the operation will return .None, which will cause the parsing chain to fail. You can parse nested values with an array of strings e.g. <| ["owner", "login"]
  • <|? parse optional value. This works in exactly the same way as the previous operator, only allows parsing into optional values. This means that the parsing chain will not fail if the specified field is null or cannot be found.
  • <^> map. This takes a function T -> U and an optional input T? and returns an optional output U?. In the parsing chain, the function is the curried create function, the optional input is the output from the value parsing function. The output is now an optional function - comprising the input create function, with one less level of currying.
  • <*> apply. This is very similar to the map, only this time the function it operates on is optional itself - i.e. (T -> U)?. This matches with the result from the parsing chain; if a result cannot be parsed then the output will be none. Otherwise, the output will be a curried create function with the more recent input parameter applied.

In addition to the ones used above, the following are also important:

  • <|| parse array of values. Takes an array from the JSON and parses it into an array in Swift.
  • <||? parse optional array of values. Identical to the previous operator, but will parse to an optional array if required.

This isn’t as confusing as it might seem. These are the important things to note:

  • The create function is curried. This means that each individual parameter can be provided in turn. This is important to support the chain-approach to parsing.
  • The parsing functions (<|, <|? etc) are used to extract the values from the input JSON. If they succeed the value is correctly typed, otherwise it is .None.
  • These extracted values are applied in turn to the curried create function. The order of the curried function and the parsing chain must therefore match.
  • If at any point a parsing function fails, the repeated application of the apply function means that the model object will not be formed.

This approach actually gets us quite close to the functionality we desire. Once you’ve ensured that your model object conforms to the JSONDecodable protocol, parsing the incoming JSON structure becomes a one-liner:

let repos: [Repo]? = (JSONValue.parse <^> json) >>- decodeArray

Once again, this line isn’t overly self-explanatory (welcome to functional programming). The output will be an array of Repo objects - as expected. The first clause (JSON.parse <^> json) takes the output of the NSJSONSerializer and converts it into the JSON structure used by Argo. This is then ‘fed-in’ to the decodeArray function, which maps over an array and attempts to convert each JSON within to the type specified in the signature (here - Repo). The >>- operator is flatmap, and is used here to cope with any .None inputs that might appear in the output of the initial conversion.

This approach required a large amount of explanation - it appears very alien to our procedural eyes. However, I suggest that it presents a very elegant solution - certainly one which is close to the desired “automatic mapping to model objects” set out at the beginning of this article.

Something that was skipped over slightly in this explanation is the ability to add additional value converters without difficulty. The parsing of values automatically does type conversion where it can, but if you want to support additional types, it’s as easy as ensuring that that type also conforms to the JSONDecodable protocol. This is demonstrated in the playground example with NSURL.


This has been a reasonably comprehensive review of what’s currently possible with Swift, and a look at some of the great libraries that have been built on top of the new language. It hasn’t gone in to great details about the theory behind the parsing options, but it should have given you enough info to assist in your decision on what approach to take, and to help you once you have done that.

It should be noted that not one of the options presented actually attains what we set out to achieve - i.e. that we could automatically parse a JSON data structure into the model objects in our data layer. Argo got by far the closest, with the additional restriction being that we had to provide our own decode functions to extract our model objects from the JSON data structure. This isn’t an entirely bad thing - even in our best case scenario we’d expect that we’d have cases that needed special attention. And the great thing about Argo is that using the functional operators and patterns meant that this code was succinct. It isn’t, however, necessarily very easy to get your head around at first. I suggest that this is because the new functional operators and ideas are still new to us - they appear alien. Once you’ve got your head around the parsing chain pattern then I think the Argo approach is both easy to comprehend and reason about - certainly more so than the mountain of optional tests we saw at the beginning of this article.

If Swift were to add functionality for reflection/introspection then the decode method present in Argo could be replaced with a sensible default. This would likely work for most cases (i.e. where property names match up with field names in the JSON), and customizations could still be provided in the existing manner. At this point I’ll be happy to say that JSON parsing in Swift has finally become a non-issue and the world can stop blogging about it. Maybe at that stage it’ll be time to argue about IoC containers instead?

Don’t forget that you can get hold of a workspace containing a set of playground that demonstrate all the code that has been introduced here today. It’s available on GitHub at The dependencies are managed by Carthage, but are checked in to ensure compatibility. You will probably have to build each of the frameworks in order for the playgrounds to pick them up. The code has all been tested with Swift 1.2 in Xcode 6.3β2.

If you’ve enjoyed reading about this topic in Swift then maybe you’d be interested in reading some of the other things I’ve written about other iOS topics. In fact, you might be interested in a book about iOS 8, written to help you get your head around all the important new technologies. To grab your free copy, head on over to the ShinobiControls site at